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The UPSC Civil Services Examination consists of three stages

Preliminary Examination:
General Studies Paper-I: 
This paper comprises multiple-choice questions and serves as a screening test. It primarily assesses a candidate's knowledge in areas such as Indian Polity, Economy, History, Geography, Science and Technology, Environment, and Current Affairs.

General Studies Paper-II (CSAT - Civil Services Aptitude Test): 
This paper focuses on testing the candidate's aptitude and logical reasoning abilities.

UPSC - MAINS

GENERAL STUDIES 01

UPSC Mains General Studies Paper-I (GS 1) Syllabus:

1. Indian Heritage and Culture:
Art and Culture from ancient to modern times.
Salient aspects of Art Forms, Literature, and Architecture.
Modern Indian history from the mid-18th century until the present.

2. World History:History of the world, including events and developments from the 18th century such as the Industrial Revolution, World Wars, Redrawing of National Boundaries, Colonization, and Decolonization.
The effect of these events on the Indian society and the world.

3. Geography:Salient features of the world's physical geography.
Important Geographical features and their location, changes in critical geographical features.
Regional Geography of India - important locations, changes, and geographical features.
Factors responsible for the location of primary, secondary, and tertiary sector industries in various parts of India.

4. Indian Society:Salient features of Indian Society, Diversity of India.
Role of Women and Women's Organizations, Population and Associated Issues, Poverty, and Development.
Social Empowerment, Communalism, Regionalism, and Secularism.

GENERAL STUDIES 02

UPSC Mains General Studies Paper-II (GS 2) Syllabus:
1. Indian Constitution and Polity:
Historical underpinnings, making of the Indian Constitution, its features, amendments, and significant provisions.
Functions and responsibilities of the Union and the States, issues and challenges related to the federal structure.
Separation of powers between various organs of the government and the issues stemming from it.
Comparisons with the constitutional schemes of other countries.

2. Indian Governance:
The issues related to the design and implementation of government policies and interventions in various sectors.
Role of the bureaucracy in policy formulation and execution.
Transparency and accountability of the government, mechanisms, and redressal of grievances.
E-governance applications, models, successes, limitations, and potential.

3. International Relations:
India's relations with neighboring countries and significant global institutions and organizations.
Bilateral, regional, and global groupings and agreements involving India.
Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India's interests, Indian diaspora.
Important International institutions, agencies, and fora- their structure, mandate.

4. Indian Constitution and Polity:
Historical underpinnings, evolution, features, amendments, and significant provisions of the Indian Constitution.
Functions and responsibilities of the Union and the States, issues and challenges pertaining to the federal structure.
Separation of powers between various organs, dispute redressal mechanisms, and institutions.
Comparison of the Indian Constitutional Scheme with that of other countries.
Parliament and State Legislatures - structure, functioning, and conduct of business.
Statutory, Regulatory, and Quasi-judicial Bodies.
Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

GENERAL STUDIES 03

UPSC Mains General Studies Paper-III (GS 3) Syllabus:
1. Indian Economy:
Issues related to planning and economic development.
Inclusive growth and issues arising from it.
Government budgeting.
Major crops, cropping patterns in various parts of the country, different types of irrigation and irrigation systems, storage, transport, and marketing of agricultural produce and issues and related constraints.
Land reforms in India.

2. Science and Technology:
Achievements of Indians in science and technology.
Indigenization of technology and developing new technology.
Science and technology developments and their applications and effects in everyday life.
Awareness in the fields of IT, space, computers, robotics, nanotechnology, biotechnology, and issues relating to intellectual property rights.

3. Biodiversity and Environment:
Conservation and environmental pollution and degradation.
Environmental impact assessment.
Disaster and disaster management.
Linkages between development and spread of extremism.
Challenges to internal security through communication networks, role of media and social networking sites in internal security challenges, basics of cybersecurity.

4. Security and Disaster Management:
Various security forces and agencies and their mandate.
Basics of cybersecurity.
Money-laundering and its prevention.
Role of external state and non-state actors in creating challenges to internal security.

5. Indian Economy:
Government budgeting.
Major crops, cropping patterns in various parts of the country, different types of irrigation and irrigation systems, storage, transport, and marketing of agricultural produce and issues and related constraints.
E-technology in the aid of farmers.
Issues related to direct and indirect farm subsidies and minimum support prices.

GENERAL STUDIES 04

UPSC Mains General Studies Paper-IV (GS 4) Syllabus:
1. Ethics and Human Interface:
Essence, determinants, and consequences of ethics in human actions.
Dimensions of ethics.
Ethics in private and public relationships.
Human values - lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers, and administrators.
Contributions of moral thinkers and philosophers from India and the world.

2. Attitude:
Attitude - content, structure, function.
Influence and relation with thought and behavior.
Moral and political attitudes.
Social influence and persuasion.

3. Aptitude and Foundational Values for Civil Service:
Integrity, impartiality, and non-partisanship.
Objectivity, dedication to public service, empathy, tolerance, and compassion towards the weaker sections.
Emotional intelligence, its use in governance.
Contributions of moral thinkers and philosophers from India and the world.

4. Public/Civil Service Values and Ethics in Public Administration:
Governance concepts.
E-governance applications, models, successes, limitations, and potential.
Information sharing and transparency in government.
Accountability and ethical governance.
Strengthening of ethical and moral values in governance.
Case studies on the above issues.

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